Bohemian aristocrat, politician and generalissimo of imperial armies who achieved exceptional military and political successes during the Thirty Years’ War and became one of the most influential figures in Europe at the time.
Monarchy ruled by the House of Habsburg, in existence from 1867 to 1918. The Czech people were forced to continuously fight for their rights, although they also went through a period of rapid economic and cultural development.
Semi-official name for the state ruled by the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty, used from 1804 to 1867.
Political doctrine in the Austrian Empire from 1851 to 1859, named after Alexander Bach, minister of the interior. It suspended the constitution in the Austrian Empire for almost nine years and brought a period of a lack of freedom and a stagnation of political life.
The most significant battle of the Napoleonic Wars, which took took place on the territory of modern day Czech Republic. It is one of the most famous battles in history. The victory of Emperor Napoleon I is still commemorated on the location of the battle by numerous monuments and places of memory.
The largest battle of the Thirty Years’ War on the Czech territory, in which on 6 March 1645 the Swedish army dealt a crushing defeat to the Imperial army of Ferdinand III and thus seriously threatened the position of the Habsburgs in Central Europe.
One of the largest and most important battles of the Seven Years’ War. It took place on 18 June 1757, when the Austrian army led by General Daun defeated the Prussian army of King Friedrich II and thus warded off the danger of Prussian occupation of Bohemia.
The decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War. It was the second longest battle of the 19th century and the longest on the territory of the modern-day Czech Republic.
The most famous battle of the Czechoslovak Legion in the First World War. Although it was not a very important battle from the military point of view, it considerably improved the prestige of Czechoslovak resistance against Austria-Hungary and became a symbol of heroism of Czechoslovak soldiers during the war.
Religious confession accepted in 1575 by representatives of non-Catholic movements in the Kingdom of Bohemia as a common programmatic basis for their struggle for religious equality.
An uprising of non-Catholic estates of the lands of the Czech Crown and Austria against the Habsburg rule, taking place between 1618 and 1620. It is regarded as the beginning of the Thirty Years’ War.
Czech version of the most significant international intellectual movement of the second half of the 18th century. Enlightenment ideals formed the first generation of National Revivalists and allowed for laying the foundations of modern Czech language and critical historiography.
Process of formation and emancipation of the modern Czech nation, which took place in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
The principal demand by Czech political elite from the final third of the 19th century to the First World War, which aimed at solving the problem of unequal position of the Czech people in Austria-Hungary. Failure to meet the demand significantly influenced the attitude of Czechs towards the Monarchy.
One of the main conflicts between Czechs and Germans in the Czech lands in the second half of the 19th century and the first quarter of the 20th century. It aggravated the relations between the two peoples and eventually contributed to the disintegration of Austria-Hungary.
Volunteer units of Czechs of Slovaks formed during the First World War in France, Italy and Russia to fight against the Central Powers. They played an important role in the formation of the Czechoslovak state and in the Russian Civil War.
Throwing out of a window by force. In Czech history, the term is applied to several acts of resistance in Prague in the 15th and at the beginning of the 17th century that ended in throwing head officials out of the window.
One of the largest waves of emigration in the history of the Czech lands. It occurred after the defeat of the Bohemian Revolt in 1620, when Bohemia and Moravia were recatholicised by the victorious Habsburgs.
A movement in the Czech lands based primarily on the American mission in the 19th century. Most Evangelical churches in the Czech Republic are a part of the Czech Evangelical Alliance.
King of Bohemia and Hungary between 1526 and 1564, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1556. His reign marked the beginning of the almost four-century-long Habsburg rule over Bohemia.
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