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Topic: History (289 records)

Knights of the Cross with the Red Star

A Roman Catholic religious order, the only military church order founded in Bohemia, as well as the only men’s church order founded by a woman. Its main mission is based on spiritual activities in parishes and hospital work.

Erazim Kohák

Czech philosopher who dealt with the topics of environmental protection. He spent most of his life in the USA, where he studied the questions of the relationship between man and world, the development of phenomenology and the problem of ethics.

Karel Kosík

Prominent Czech philosopher, sociologist and historian. Representative of Czechoslovak humanistic Marxism, in the 1960s the most internationally famous Czech philosopher. His publication The Dialectics of the Concrete (Dialektika konkrétního, 1963) made him an internationally recognised thinker.

Václav Antonín Kounic

Moravian nobleman, politician and diplomat. As State Chancellor and the most influential advisor to Maria Theresa he was the main creator of home and foreign policy of the Habsburg Monarchy for many years.

Karel Kramář

The first Prime Minister of the Czechoslovak Republic.

Ladislaus the Posthumous

King of Bohemia from 1453 until 1457 and King of Hungary from 1444 until 1457. He was the third ruler from the House of Habsburg on the Bohemian throne.

Lands of the Bohemian Crown

Historical state consisting of lands under the sovereignty of the King of Bohemia. The term is now often used as one of the names for the historical Czech state.

Leopold I

King of Bohemia and Hungary between 1657 and 1705, Holy Roman Emperor between 1658 and 1705. During his reign, the Habsburg Monarchy became one of the largest European powers.

Leopold II

King of the Kingdom of Bohemia and of the Kingdom of Hungary, and the Holy Roman Emperor between 1790 and 1792. He strove to continue the reforms of his brother Joseph II by more sensitive means. However, his short reign did not allow him to fully implement his plans.

Letter of Majesty

Important document issued on 9 July 1609 by Emperor Rudolf II, which confirmed religion freedom for the inhabitants of the Kingdom of Bohemia. It was the most progressive document related to religious freedom in Europe at the time.

Lety concentration camp

Former camp in the Písek district, opened in 1940 as a labour camp for Romani people and other “vagrant people”. During the Second World War it functioned as a concentration camp.

House of Liechtenstein

Aristocratic family formally at the head of the Principality of Liechtenstein. It used to be the largest and most powerful land owner in the Czech lands.

Alois Liška

Army general of the 1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade, the only land army unit consisting of Czechoslovak citizens that was active on the western front during the Second World War.

House of Lobkowicz

Czech aristocratic family dating from the 14th century. Its representatives have played important roles in Czech and European politics and are still active in public life.

Louis II Jagiellon

King of Bohemia and Hungary from 1516 to 1526. The last member of the Jagiellon dynasty sitting on the Bohemian throne.

Pavel Ludikar

World-famous opera singer (bass) and pianist who performed on the most prestigious stages in the world.


Historic region on the territory of modern-day Germany and Poland. It was a part of the Czech lands until 1635.

House of Luxembourg

Originally the ruling family of the County of Luxembourg, whose members ruled as kings of Bohemia between 1310 and 1437. During the era of their rule, the Kingdom of Bohemia went through a period of exceptional prosperity during the reign of Charles IV, as well as through the dramatic events of the Hussite Revolution.

Milan Machovec

Czech philosopher, humanistic and reformist Marxist. In the 1960s, he was an internationally recognised theoretician of the philosophical dialogue between Marxists and Christians. His concept of Marxist humanism laid the foundations for an understanding between the two camps.

Malá Strana Cemetery

Valuable historic cemetery complex located in Smíchov, Prague. Its Classicist, Romanticist and Neo-Gothic tombstones reflect the stylistic changes and the development of cemetery sculpture in the 18th and 19th centuries. It summarises valuable monuments of Czech figurative sculpture.

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